Catalytic upgrading of biomass is of paramount importance in view of a sustainable production of chemicals and fuels. One of the most highlighted materials is 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF). 5-HMF is obtained from C6 carbohydrates (glucose, fructose) and is a valuable platform chemical for the production of a range of materials. 5-HMF can be converted to furan-based chemicals for use in fuels, solvents, and polymers. The chemicals 2-hydroxymethylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran (DMF), and 2,5-dimethyltetrahydrofuran are potential bio-fuels and solvents, where 2,5-dihydroxymethyl furan (FDM) and 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) can be employed as renewable monomers for polyurethane materials.